Israel, Ukraine, U.S, Uganda and many more Countries supply South Sudan’s Civil War.
CHINESE WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION
According to Conflict Armament Research, Chinese-manufactured weapons and ammu- nition constitute a significant proportion of materiel in circulation in a number of African conflicts, including the one in South Sudan. China accounts for 37 per cent of the weapons and more than 99 per cent of the ammunition documented by CAR in South Sudan since 2014.14
CAR has nonetheless found no indications of direct or indirect Chinese weapon or ammuni- tion supplies to the SPLA since May 2014. These findings stand in contrast to SPLA-IO claims that Chinese supplies reached the SPLA more recently, via neighbouring countries, including Ethiopia.15
In May 2014, the Chinese arms manufacturer China North Industries Corporation (Norinco) dispatched two large shipments by sea to Juba, via the Kenyan port city of Mombasa. The shipments were consigned to the South Sudanese Ministry of Defence (MOD) and comprised more than 27 million rounds of small-calibre ammunition, 40,000 Type 69
40 mm rockets, 20,000 BGL2 40 mm anti-per- sonnel spin-stabilised grenades, 2,394 40 mm under-barrel grenade launchers, 1,200 Type HJ-73D anti-tank guided missiles, 100 HJ-73D launchers, 9,574 Type 56 (AK-pattern) 7.62 × 39 mm assault rifles, 660 NP42 9 mm pistols, 319 Type 80 general-purpose machine guns, and other military equipment.16 Norinco shipped this materiel under contracts concluded in 2011 and 2013, with the respective contract numbers MOD/001/2011 and MODVA/001/2013 (see Figure 1).17 Given the absence of a UN arms embargo on South Sudan at the time, these transfers were lawful.